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Khani A, Rainer G. Neural and neurochemical basis of reinforcement-guided decision making. Decision making is an adaptive behavior that takes into account several internal and external input variables and leads to the choice of a course of action over other available and often competing alternatives. While it has been studied in diverse fields ranging from mathematics, economics, ecology, and ethology to psychology and neuroscience, recent cross talk among perspectives from different fields has<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.1152/jn.01113.2015">doi:10.1152/jn.01113.2015</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27226454">pmid:27226454</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/wpqjzj2sxnh2dh5lfqw5pszuhq">fatcat:wpqjzj2sxnh2dh5lfqw5pszuhq</a> </span>
more »... yielded novel descriptions of decision processes. Reinforcement-guided decision making models are based on economic and reinforcement learning theories, and their focus is on the maximization of acquired benefit over a defined period of time. Studies based on reinforcementguided decision making have implicated a large network of neural circuits across the brain. This network includes a wide range of cortical (e.g., orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) and subcortical (e.g., nucleus accumbens and subthalamic nucleus) brain areas and uses several neurotransmitter systems (e.g., dopaminergic and serotonergic systems) to communicate and process decisionrelated information. This review discusses distinct as well as overlapping contributions of these networks and neurotransmitter systems to the processing of decision making. 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