The efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response after two dose mRNA vaccination in kidney and heart transplant recipients using a multiplex bead-based assay: Evaluating the factors affecting vaccine response

Forte Steven J, Toepp Angela J, Bray Robert A, Baran David A, Gilgannon Lauren T, Williams Troy, Chen Shirui, Sadr Hooman, Gebel Howard M, Herre John M, McCune Thomas R
2022 Archive of Organ Transplantation  
The extent that which immunosuppressive factors contribute to the antibody response to SARS-Cov-2 vaccination in solid organ transplant patients is being better understood. This study examined antibody formation against the spike SARS-CoV-2 protein (SA) when full vaccinations were up to 2 doses and boosters were not recommended. Immunosuppressive factors that affected the vaccine responsiveness in a cohort of 100 kidney and 50 heart transplant patients were evaluated. This study utilized a
more » ... assay to detect antibodies against 4 different domains of the spike protein and the nucleocapsid protein (NC) of the SARS-CoV-2 virus on a multiplex, bead-based platform. Positive SARS-COV-2 antibodies (SA) response required identification of the receptor-binding domain and one of the three other spike protein domains. Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection could be determined by the presence of positive NC. Results: 150 patients were enrolled in the study (100 kidneys; 50 heart recipients). This study was performed when the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended only two doses of Pfizer/BioNTech [BNT162b2] and Moderna [mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2] vaccine or 1 dose of Johnson & Johnson/Janssen [Ad26.COV2.S] vaccines for full SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in transplant recipients. Patients that reported a positive COVID-19 swab or had positive NC were excluded from the review because the prior infection may impact vaccine response (n = 134). Conclusions: SA were identified in 48/134 patients (36%); 25/46 heart (54%) and 23/88 kidney transplant patients (26%) (P = 0.0012). For the patients on prednisone therapy 25/93 responded with SA (27%) while for patients not on prednisone therapy, 23/41 responded with SA (56%) (P = 0.0012). The dose of steroids (5mg a day or greater) at the time of vaccination did not adversely affect vaccine efficacy (p = 0.054). Of the patients using antimetabolite therapy, 36/113 responded with SA (32%) while 12/21 patients not on antimetabolites responded with SA (57%) (P = .027). Time since transplant was not found to affect the rate of SA production when populations were separated by type of organ transplanted. T-cell depletion induction method, calcineurin inhibitor use, and type of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine were not found to be statistically significant.
doi:10.17352/2640-7973.000019 fatcat:ylshdremwjbtbeo2lmvn6iwlem