Structure and Expression of the Murine Phosphatidylserine Synthase-1 Gene
Journal of Biological Chemistry
In mammalian cells, phosphatidylserine is synthesized by two different enzymes, phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS)-1 and -2, via a base exchange reaction in which the head group of a phospholipid (phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylethanolamine) is replaced by Lserine. Since the amino acid sequences of PSS1 and PSS2 are only ϳ30% identical, it is likely that they are encoded by different genes. We have screened a murine liver genomic DNA library, included in bacterial artificial chromosomes,
... al chromosomes, with full-length murine PSS1 cDNA and isolated a clone containing the majority of the PSS1 gene. This gene spans ϳ35 kilobases and contains 13 exons and 12 introns. The sizes of the exons range from 44 to 1035 base pairs. The gene was localized to chromosome 13 in region B-C1. According to reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction, PSS1 and PSS2 mRNAs were expressed in all murine tissues examined. The mRNA encoding PSS1 was most abundant in kidney, brain, and liver, whereas PSS2 mRNA was most highly expressed in testis. In general agreement with the levels of mRNA expression, the choline exchange activity (contributed by PSS1, but not PSS2) was highest in brain, whereas serine and ethanolamine exchange activities were highest in testis and kidney. The transcriptional initiation site for PSS1 was identified 111 base pairs upstream of the ATG specifying the start of translation. The putative 5-proximal promoter region of the gene contained no TATA or CAAT box, but did have a high GC content. Isolation of the murine PSS1 gene is a step toward generation of genetically modified mouse models that will help to understand the functions of PSS1 and PSS2 in animal biology.