Initial Characterization of Active Transitioning Centaur, P/2019 LD2 (ATLAS), using Hubble, Spitzer, ZTF, Keck, APO and GROWTH Visible & Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy

Bryce T. Bolin, Yanga R. Fernandez, Carey M. Lisse, Timothy R. Holt, Zhong-Yi Lin, Josiah N. Purdum, Kunal P. Deshmukh, James M. Bauer, Eric C. Bellm, Dennis Bodewits, Kevin B. Burdge, Sean J. Carey (+34 others)
We present visible and mid-infrared imagery and photometry of temporary Jovian co-orbital comet P/2019 LD$_2$ taken with HST/WFC3, Spitzer/IRAC, the GROWTH telescope network, visible spectroscopy from Keck/LRIS and archival ZTF observations taken between 2019 April and 2020 August. Our observations indicate that the nucleus of LD$_2$ has a radius between 0.2-1.8 km assuming a 0.08 albedo and a coma dominated by $\sim$100$μ$ m-scale dust ejected at $\sim$1 m/s speeds with a $\sim$1" jet pointing
more » ... in the SW direction. LD$_2$ experienced a total dust mass loss of $\sim$10$^8$ kg at a loss rate of $\sim$6 kg/s with Af$ρ$/cross-section varying between $\sim$85 cm/125 km$^2$ and $\sim$200 cm/310 km$^2$ from 2019 April 9 to 2019 Nov 8. If the increase in Af$ρ$/cross-section remained constant, it implies LD$_2$'s activity began $\sim$2018 November when within 4.8 au of the Sun, implying the onset of H$_2$O sublimation. We measure CO/CO$_2$ gas production of $\lesssim$10$^{27}$ mol/s /$\lesssim$10$^{26}$ mol/s from our 4.5 $μ$m Spitzer observations, $g$-$r$ = 0.59$\pm$0.03, $r$-$i$ = 0.18$\pm$0.05, $i$-$z$ = 0.01$\pm$0.07 from GROWTH observations, H$_2$O gas production of $\lesssim$80 kg/s scaling from our estimated $C_2$ production of $Q_{C_2}\lesssim$7.5$\times10^{24}$ mol/s from Keck/LRIS spectroscopy. We determine that the long-term orbit of LD$_2$ is similar to Jupiter family comets having close encounters with Jupiter within $\sim$0.5 Hill radius in the last $\sim$3 y, within 0.8 Hill radius in $\sim$9 y. Additionally, 78.8$\%$ of our orbital clones are ejected from the Solar System within $1 \times 10^{6}$ years having a dynamical half-life of 3.4 $\times 10^5$ years.
doi:10.48550/arxiv.2011.03782 fatcat:55qpn26gf5hn7dliacqh2s3cvi