Syzygium cumini Leaf Extract Reverts Hypertriglyceridemia via Downregulation of the Hepatic XBP-1s/PDI/MTP Axis in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

Lucas Martins França, Caio Fernando Ferreira Coêlho, Larissa Nara Costa Freitas, Ivana Letícia Santos Souza, Vinicyus Teles Chagas, Victor Debbas, Thais Martins de Lima, Heraldo Possolo de Souza, Francisco Rafael Martins Laurindo, Antonio Marcus de Andrade Paes
2019 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity  
Syzygium cumini is used worldwide for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-associated outcomes. Previously, we described the antihypertriglyceridemic effect of the hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) in monosodium L-glutamate- (MSG-) induced obese rats. This study sought to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the antihypertriglyceridemic effect of HESc in MSG-obese rats. Newborn male Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with MSG (4.0 g/kg/day, obese group) or saline
more » ... 25% (1.0 mL/kg/day, lean group), from 2nd through 10th postnatal day. At 8 weeks old, obese rats started to be orally treated with HESc (0.5 or 1.0 g/kg/day, n=7) or saline 0.9% (1 mL/kg/day, n=7). Lean rats received saline solution (1 mL/kg/day, n=7). Upon 8-week treatment, animals were euthanized for blood and tissue collection. Another set of adult nonobese Wistar rats was used for the assessment of HESc acute effects on Triton WR1339-induced hypertriglyceridemia. HESc reduced weight gain, as well as adipose tissue fat pads, without altering food intake of obese rats. HESc restored fasting serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and free fatty acids, as well as insulin sensitivity, to levels similar to lean rats. Additionally, HESc halved the triglyceride content into very low-density lipoprotein particles, as well as healed liver steatosis, in obese rats. Hepatic protein expression of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP94 was decreased by HESc, which also downregulated the hepatic triglyceride secretion pathway by reducing the splicing of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1s), as well as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) translational levels. This action was further corroborated by the acute inhibitory effect of HESc on triglyceride accumulation on Triton WR1339-treated rats. Our data support the downregulation of the XBP-1s/PDI/MTP axis in the liver of MSG-obese rats as a novel feasible mechanism for the antihypertriglyceridemic effect promoted by the polyphenolic phytocomplex present in S. cumini leaf.
doi:10.1155/2019/9417498 fatcat:5smdr673zncwbg652nb7huasru