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2003 Annual Conference Proceedings
Industrial process control, which moved from Direct Digital Control (DDC) to Distributed Control Systems (DCS) in the late 1970s, is now making another transition to Field Control Systems (FCS). While FCS is just a form of DCS, it adds additional dimensions to the control function through the use of networked systems and smart control elements. Foundation Fieldbus (FF), an implementation of FCS based on international standards, was introduced in 1994 and is becoming an established technologydoi:10.18260/1-2--12408 fatcat:clmb5d2dp5cwbblaslhd44rere