Ground states in non-relativistic quantum electrodynamics [chapter]

Marcel Griesemer, Elliott H. Lieb, Michael Loss
The Stability of Matter: From Atoms to Stars  
The excited states of a charged particle interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field and an external potential all decay, but such a particle should have a true ground state -one that minimizes the energy and satisfies the Schrödinger equation. We prove quite generally that this state exists for all values of the fine-structure constant and the ultraviolet cutoff. We also show the same thing for a many-particle system under physically natural conditions.
doi:10.1007/3-540-27056-6_41 fatcat:l734gqnyjzc57ga2rt2n65xiue