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This survey concerns the role of data structures for compactly storing and representing various types of information in a localized and distributed fashion. Traditional approaches to data representation are based on global data structures, which require access to the entire structure even if the sought information involves only a small and local set of entities. In contrast, localized data representation schemes are based on breaking the information into small local pieces, or labels, selecteddoi:10.1007/s00446-002-0073-5 fatcat:bqydpls23ncnnm57nnhmctnz3m