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Etiology and Morphogenesis of Congenital Heart Disease
The significance of the epicardium that covers the heart and the roots of the great arteries should not be underestimated as it is a major component with impact on development, disease, and repair. The epicardium differentiates from the proepicardial organ located at the venous pole (vPEO). The differentiation capacities of the vPEO into epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) have been extensively described. A hitherto escaped part of the epicardium derives from a second proepicardial organ locateddoi:10.1007/978-4-431-54628-3_2 fatcat:ua2xvvlxwfhfffajus7sggypyy