Psychiatric Neural Networks and Precision Therapeutics by Machine Learning

Hidetoshi Komatsu, Emi Watanabe, Mamoru Fukuchi
2021 Biomedicines  
Learning and environmental adaptation increase the likelihood of survival and improve the quality of life. However, it is often difficult to judge optimal behaviors in real life due to highly complex social dynamics and environment. Consequentially, many different brain regions and neuronal circuits are involved in decision-making. Many neurobiological studies on decision-making show that behaviors are chosen through coordination among multiple neural network systems, each implementing a
more » ... t set of computational algorithms. Although these processes are commonly abnormal in neurological and psychiatric disorders, the underlying causes remain incompletely elucidated. Machine learning approaches with multidimensional data sets have the potential to not only pathologically redefine mental illnesses but also better improve therapeutic outcomes than DSM/ICD diagnoses. Furthermore, measurable endophenotypes could allow for early disease detection, prognosis, and optimal treatment regime for individuals. In this review, decision-making in real life and psychiatric disorders and the applications of machine learning in brain imaging studies on psychiatric disorders are summarized, and considerations for the future clinical translation are outlined. This review also aims to introduce clinicians, scientists, and engineers to the opportunities and challenges in bringing artificial intelligence into psychiatric practice.
doi:10.3390/biomedicines9040403 pmid:33917863 fatcat:qnptg73avbc5bdurwcjvf472p4