Journal of Hypertension
Results: We show that in HT patients,VC was correlated with higher systolic pressure,the higher incidence and more intima-media thickness of the plaque of carotid artery and was associated with arterial stiffness(including higher carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, aortic systolic pressure, augment pressure, augment index(P < 0.05)). Furthermore, The phenotype of M1∼like monocyte/ macrophages was significantly increasesd in HT patients with VC (P < 0.05) (Fig 3) . Although both Serum OPN and
... oth Serum OPN and OPG levels increased in HT patients with VC, they significantly upregulated anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages marks (P < 0.05) and only OPN downregulated pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages marks. Conclusions: The phenotype of M1 macrophages and M2 macrophages is promoted by VC (fig 2) . The ability of OPN and OPG to promote differentiation of macrophages into an alternative, anti-inflammatory phenotype may explain their protective effects in VC of HT patients. These data provide novel insight into the link between inflammtion and VC diseases. Objective: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by an elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but detailed informations on the risk score profile using different approaches, as well as on the major determinant(s) of the cardiovascular risk of these patients are scanty. Design and method: The present study reports data collected in a cohort of RA patients with CV risk score calculators Framingham and SCORE uncorrected or corrected according to European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations. Cardiovascular events were recorded during the 3 yrs follow-up, to determine the burden of CV morbidity and the relative impact of traditional CV risk factors and disease activity/severity. We enrolled in the study 198 pts, 77% females, age 65.0 ± 11.6 yrs (means ± SD), disease duration 13 ± 9 yrs. 76% of pts were RF +, 68% ACPA+ and 46% with erosive disease. 3% were smokers and 32% ex smokers. Mean BMI (24.6 ± 4.4), plasma levels of cholesterol (total,HDL,LDL), triglycerides and glucose and prevalence of smokers were comparable with those detected in the local general population, while the prevalence of hypertension and diabetes were significantly higher in both males and females. Results: Risk scores with Framingham were lower than in general population and comparable using SCORE, but the application of 1.5x correction factor for RA, as recommended by EULAR, modified these figures. The number of hypertensive and diabetic pts increased significantly (P<.0001/ .019) during the follow-up as well as the mean values of Framingham and SCORE (p < .015/.011). The MI and stroke prevalence were 5% and 2% respectively: the incidence rate/1000 person/year were 8.8 and 3.7 versus 2.7 and 2.6 in the general population. No relation was detectable between disease activity indices and CV events or risk scores.