Genetic analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope V3 region isolates from mothers and infants after perinatal transmission
Journal of Virology
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) sequences from variable region 3 (V3) of the envelope gene were analyzed from seven infected mother-infant pairs following perinatal transmission. The V3 region sequences directly derived from the DNA of the uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from infected mothers displayed a heterogeneous population. In contrast, the infants' sequences were less diverse than those of their mothers. In addition, the sequences from the younger infants'
... younger infants' peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA were more homogeneous than the older infants' sequences. All infants' sequences were different but displayed patterns similar to those seen in their mothers. In the mother-infant pair sequences analyzed, a minor genotype or subtype found in the mothers predominated in their infants. The conserved N-linked glycosylation site proximal to the first cysteine of the V3 loop was absent only in one infant's sequence set and in some variants of two other infants' sequences. Furthermore, the HIV-1 sequences of the epidemiologically linked motherinfant pairs were closer than the sequences of epidemiologically unlinked individuals, suggesting that the sequence comparison of mother-infant pairs done in order to identify genetic variants transmitted from mother to infant could be performed even in older infants. There was no evidence for transmission of a major genotype or multiple genotypes from mother to infant. In conclusion, a minor genotype of maternal virus is transmitted to the infants, and this finding could be useful in developing strategies to prevent maternal transmission of HIV-1 by means of perinatal interventions.