A Mechanism for Fatty Acid Inhibition of Glucose Utilization in Liver
Journal of Biological Chemistry
The glucose-stimulated rise in Fru-2,6-P 2 in liver results from xylulose 5-P activation of a specific protein phosphatase 2A which dephosphorylates Fru-6-P,2-kinase:Fru-2,6-bisphosphatase (Nishimura, M., and Uyeda, K. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 26100 -26106). In order to determine the role of xylulose 5-P in regulating Fru-2,6-P 2 in liver, the effect of fatty acids, various hexoses, and hormones was examined in perfused rat liver and in intact rats. When 24-h starved rat livers were perfused
... vers were perfused with acetate, butyrate, or propionate, Fru-2,6-P 2 and xylulose 5-P decreased to the same extent and at similar rates. The activity ratios of the kinase and the phosphatase changed in a reciprocal manner, indicating that the phosphorylated form of the enzyme was increased by the fatty acids perfusion. The fatty acids caused the similar changes in the metabolites and the phosphorylation state of the bifunctional enzyme in livers of fed animals. Fructose, galactose, or mannose perfusion in starved rat liver increased both Fru-2,6-P 2 and xylulose 5-P and converted the bifunctional enzyme to the dephospho form. Both the Fru-2,6-P 2 and xylulose 5-P levels in rats fed a high fat diet decreased over 50% compared to that in control rats. These results indicated a close correlation between Fru-2,6-P 2 and xylulose 5-P levels and the phosphorylation state of fructose 6-P,2kinase:fructose 2,6-bisphosphatase. Fatty acid inhibition of glucose metabolism can be explained by a decrease in xylulose 5-P, which lowers xylulose 5-Pactivated protein phosphatase 2A activity, resulting in more phosphorylated form of the bifunctional enzyme and consequently lower Fru-2,6-P 2 . 2 In the original Scheme (11) we showed "Glucose" in place of "Carbohydrates." The reason for this change is explained in the text.