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The i-motif is a high-order DNA structure formed by hemiprotonated cytosine-cytosine base pairs under acidic conditions. It is less well studied than other high-order DNA structures, such as G-quadruplexes. However, increasing numbers of i-motif-binding ligands are being reported, and they are being used as tools to investigate the i-motif's structure and biological functions. It has become clear that the i-motif has a functional role in the regulation of gene expression. In this review, wedoi:10.1248/cpb.c18-00720 fatcat:47vpynobxffgzbardifc25plnu