LINKING ENGLISH-LANGUAGE TEST SCORES ONTO THE COMMON EUROPEAN FRAMEWORK OF REFERENCE: AN APPLICATION OF STANDARD-SETTING METHODOLOGY

Richard J. Tannenbaum, E. Caroline Wylie
2008 ETS Research Report Series  
The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) describes language proficiency in reading, writing, speaking, and listening on a 6-level scale. In this study, English-language experts from across Europe linked CEFR levels to scores on three tests: the TOEFL ® iBT test, the TOEIC ® assessment, and the TOEIC Bridge™ test. Standard-setting methodology (a modified Angoff approach and a modified examinee paper selection approach) was used to construct the linkages. Linkages were established for
more » ... FL iBT at levels B1, B2, and C1. Linkages were established for TOEIC at levels A1 through C1, with the exception of Reading at the C1 level. The TOEIC Bridge test was linked to its three targeted levels of the CEFR. The report details the methods, procedures, and results of the study. Since its inception in 1963, the TOEFL has evolved from a paper-based test to a computer-based test and, in 2005, to an Internet-based test, TOEFL iBT. One constant throughout this evolution has been a continuing program of research related to the TOEFL test. From 1977 to 2005, nearly 100 research and technical reports on the early versions of TOEFL were published. In 1997, a monograph series that laid the groundwork for the development of TOEFL iBT was launched. With the release of TOEFL iBT, a TOEFL iBT report series has been introduced. Currently this research is carried out in consultation with the TOEFL Committee of Examiners. Its members include representatives of the TOEFL Board and distinguished English as a second language specialists from the academic community. The Committee advises the TOEFL program about research needs and, through the research subcommittee, solicits, reviews, and approves proposals for funding and reports for publication. Members of the Committee of Examiners serve four-year terms at the invitation of the Board; the chair of the committee serves on the Board. Current (2007-2008) members of the TOEFL Committee of Examiners are: To obtain more information about the TOEFL programs and services, use one of the following: E-mail: toefl@ets.org Web site: www.ets.org/toefl iii Acknowledgments We extend our sincere appreciation to our colleagues who provided thoughtful reviews and offered sound advice on an earlier version of this report: Don Powers, Yasuyo Sawaki, Ari Huhta, and Glenn Fulcher. We also thank to our colleagues Jenny Dalalakis and Craig Stief, who provided invaluable contributions both before and during the study. We also thank the TOEFL and TOEIC business areas at ETS for their support of this work.
doi:10.1002/j.2333-8504.2008.tb02120.x fatcat:ti3xvuvb3rasrhz62llzoir5rq