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Pipelines play an important role in the national/international transportation of natural gas, petroleum products, and other energy resources. Pipelines are set up in different environments and consequently suffer various damage challenges, such as environmental electrochemical reaction, welding defects, and external force damage, etc. Defects like metal loss, pitting, and cracks destroy the pipeline's integrity and cause serious safety issues. This should be prevented before it occurs to ensuredoi:10.3390/s21113862 fatcat:fuzettw7ubeg7ecbom7imjuafe