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| Automatic speech recognition (ASR) is a central and common component of voice-driven information processing systems in human language technology, including spoken language translation (SLT), spoken language understanding (SLU), voice search, spoken document retrieval, and so on. Interfacing ASR with its downstream text-based processing tasks of translation, understanding, and information retrieval (IR) creates both challenges and opportunities in optimal design of the combined, speech-enableddoi:10.1109/jproc.2012.2236631 fatcat:e4shp2pvira3dmmyrzrdi6uqze