Impact Factor: 5.2 IJAR

Nitin Agarwal, Shweta Agarwal, Darshan Mehra, Anoop Kumar, Sharma Mahendra, Statiction, Nitin Agarwal, Ankit Chaturvedi, Shweta Agarwal, Darshan Mehra, Anoop Kumar, Mahendra Sharma (+1 others)
2017 unpublished
Tuberculous pericardial effusion is common in India. Since, the introduction of HIV infection, the incidence of tuberculous pericardial effusion has increased not only in India but also the world over. It presents with the usual features of tuberculous infection (low grade fever, loss of appetite, loss of weight) along with features of pericardial effusion (dyspnea, cough and enlarged heart). The salient features of pericardial effusion are low volume pulse or even pulsus paradoxus, raised
more » ... adoxus, raised jugular venous pressure Kussmaul's sign, congestive hepatomegaly, ascites and edema over legs. In massive pericardial effusion, patient may go into cardiac tamponade when patient is breathless, restless with poor volume pulse (typical paradoxus), engorged neck veins, sinus tachycardia, fall in blood pressure. Urgent pericardial paracentesis is warranted to reverse the hemodynamic changes with improvement in symptoms and signs. Laboratory tests reveal raised absolute lymphocyte count, raised ESR, cardiomegaly on X-ray chest, low voltage and sinus tachycardia on ECG, Echo-free space seen between two pericardial layers on 2D-echo with heart floating in pericardial sac. Diagnostic pericardial paracentesis shows that pericardial fluid is lymphocytic exudate, with elevated ADA and IFN-g levels.