Microstructure Evaluation and Constitutive Modeling of AISI-1045 Steel for Flow Stress Prediction under Hot Working Conditions
In the field of engineering, automobile and aerospace components are manufactured based on the desired applications from the metal forming process. For producing better quality of both symmetry and asymmetry mechanical parts, understanding the material deformation and analytical representation of the material ductility behavior for the working material is necessary as the forming procedures carried out mostly in the warm processing conditions. In this work, the hot tensile test flow
... n data were utilized to construct the constitutive equation for describing AISI-1045 steel material hot deformation behavior, and the test conditions, such as deformation temperatures and strain rates were 750–950 ° C and 0.05–1.0 s − 1 , respectively. The surface morphology and elemental identification analysis were performed using the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) coupled with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) mapping setup. In this work, the Arrhenius-type constitutive equation, including the strain compensation, was used to formulate the flow stress prediction model for capturing the material behavior. Besides, the Zener-Hollomon parameter was altered, employing incorporating the effect of strain rate and strain on the flow stress. The empirical model approach was employed to estimate the material model constants from the constitutive equation using the actual test measurements. The population metrics such as coefficient of determination ( R 2 ), sample standard deviation of the error (SSD), standard error of the regression (SER), coefficient of residual variation (CRV), and average absolute relative error (AARE) was employed to confirm the predictability of the proposed models. The computed results are discussed in detail, using numerical and graphical verification's. From the graphical comparison, the flow stress-strain data achieved from the proposed constitutive model are in good agreement with the actual test measurements. The constitutive model prediction accuracy is found to be improved, like the prediction error range from 3.678% to 2.984%. This evidence proves to be feasible as the newly developed model displayed a significant improvement against the experimental observations.