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This paper reports the development of a simple, inexpensive apparatus that can be constructed and programmed to simulate normal as well as abnormal depolarization and repolarization of the heart and to reproduce an electrocardiogram. The device utilizes a modulated light beam, a series of differential photocells, a patch cord programmer, and a synthesizer consisting of an array of dipoles in a saline conductor. Changes occurring on a cellular level are simulated and programmed and in properdoi:10.1161/01.cir.40.2.173 pmid:5796788 fatcat:donz766pjrbmdegh5k7ym7rg2m