Analysis of the Impact of Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) on Reducing the Demand for Electricity and Heat in Buildings Located in Poland
Based on a method to reduce energy consumption suggested in a real energy audit carried out in an industrial plant located in Poznań (city in Poland), the potential of using photovoltaic (PV) panels as wall cladding was analyzed, in order to reduce energy (electric and thermal) consumption and financial expenditure. The authors' concept of using building integrated photovoltaic installation (BIPV) was presented and tested. This study checked whether the presence of PV modules would also affect
... would also affect heat transfer through the external wall of the building on which the installation is located. The analysis consisted of determining, for two variants, the heat transfer coefficients across the partition, in order to estimate the potential thermal energy savings. The first variant concerned the existing state, i.e., heat transfer through the external wall of the building, while the second included an additional partition layer in the form of photovoltaic panels. As a result, the use of panels as wall cladding allowed the improvement of the thermal parameters of the building wall (by increasing the thermal resistance of the wall), and the reduction of gas consumption for heating. The panels also generate electricity for the factory's own needs. Payback time, compared to calculations which do not include changes in thermal parameters, was shortened from 14 to 11 years. The main reason for this is that gas consumption is reduced due to the improved heat transfer coefficient of the wall and the reduction of the heat loss of the facility. This aspect is usually overlooked when considering photovoltaic installations and, as argued by this paper, can be important.