Multifrequency target strength of northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) swimming horizontally

L. Calise, T. Knutsen
2011 ICES Journal of Marine Science  
Multifrequency acoustic measurements on ex situ horizontally swimming krill were made in a novel experimental setting. An ensemble of northern krill (Meganyctiphanes norvegica) was introduced to a large enclosure (a mesocosm), and acoustic backscatter was sampled using a multifrequency (70, 120, and 200 kHz) echosounder (Simrad EK60). Two submerged lamps were placed at opposite sides of the mesocosm and switched on and off to induce the krill, by light attraction, to swim horizontally through
more » ... e acoustic beams. By tracking echoes, animal displacement, swimming speed, and target strength (TS) by frequency were estimated. The dominant and secondary modes of the total-length distribution were 21.8 + 3.0 and 27.8 + 2.7 mm, respectively. Although krill orientation was assumed stable and the ping rate was high, the range and inter-ping variability of the average TS values were large, decreasing and increasing with frequency, respectively. The overall TS frequency response observed and concurrent measurements at 120 and 200 kHz confirm the theoretical expectation that the acoustic backscatter from the investigated organisms were confined to the Rayleigh and Geometric scattering regions, a finding that might both aid acoustic identification and size-group separation of in situ northern krill.
doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsr170 fatcat:yntewebthfgvbfb3tceuzbsvzu