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Physics of Fluids
Dynamics of well-organized tube-like coherent structures under a free surface and turbulent scalar transfer across the free surface in fully developed turbulent flow in an open channel is investigated. A direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is used to obtain the structure of the free-surface turbulence. First, the effect of the free surface on fully developed turbulence statistics is described. Anisotropy of velocity and vorticity under the free surfacedoi:10.1063/1.870020 fatcat:g7jp3vxjufg5rjicpwcfoypvpu