Cutaneous Tuberculosis-A Profile of Cases 3 Years Cross Sectional Study

Anita Javalgi, Balchandra Ankad, Vijay Dombale
Tuberculosis is an ancient disease known since prehistoric times and remains important infectious disease today in terms of morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Cutaneous tuberculosis makes up a small proportion (1.5%) of all cases of extra pulmonary tuberculosis. In a recent study from India cases of cutaneous tuberculosis make upto 0.15% of all skin outpatients. Irrespective of immunodeficiency status, cutaneous tuberculosis still contributes markedly in morbidity of developing countries
more » ... eveloping countries and it remains at times a diagnostic challenge in dermatology clinic due to its varied clinical manifestations and varied histomorphology, hence proper clinical management with assisted histopathological diagnosis, the morbidity can be reduced. Aim and Objective: To study clinical and morphological variants of cutaneous tuberculosis with age and sex distribution. Materials and Methods: 3 years prospective study was done in the Department of Pathology, Shri Nijilingappa Medical College , Bagalkot from 2009 to 2011. Total 267 skin biopsies were received in the histopathology section. The biopsy tissue was processed as per routine procedure and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stains and special stains (ZN with 20% H 2 SO 4). Microscopic features were studied and diagnosis of cutaneous tuberculosis made with sub typing and clinical co-relation. Results: Out of 267 skin biopsies, 37 were diagnosed as cutaneous tuberculosis based on clinical examination and morphology, Lupus vulgaris (62.16%) was a commonest variant affecting males (64.86%) predominantly. Most frequent age group affected was 21-40 years (59.45%). Face and neck were the usual sites for manifestation. Forty one percent of cases were mantoux test positive. All cases were HIV negative and free from active pulmonary tuberculosis. Conclusion: Lupus vulgaris remains most frequent form of cutaneous tuberculosis in dermatopathology irrespective of HIV status. Strong clinical suspicion, histopatho-logical study and response to anti-tuberculosis treatment are sufficient for diagnosis and thus reducing the morbidity and mortality.