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Nonequilibrium fluctuations, fluctuation theorems, and counting statistics in quantum systems
Reviews of Modern Physics
Fluctuation theorems (FTs), which describe some universal properties of nonequilibrium fluctuations, are examined from a quantum perspective and derived by introducing a two-point measurement on the system. FTs for closed and open systems driven out of equilibrium by an external time-dependent force, and for open systems maintained in a nonequilibrium steady-state by nonequilibrium boundary conditions, are derived from a unified approach. Applications to fermion and boson transport in quantumdoi:10.1103/revmodphys.81.1665 fatcat:sq67nlj76bgzbgkq6g7wexoigm