Kerneltron: Support Vector 'Machine' in Silicon [chapter]

Roman Genov, Gert Cauwenberghs
2002 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
Detection of complex objects in streaming video poses two fundamental challenges: training from sparse data with proper generalization across variations in the object class and the environment; and the computational power required of the trained classifier running real-time. The Kerneltron supports the generalization performance of a support vector machine (SVM) and offers the bandwidth and efficiency of a massively parallel architecture. The mixed-signal very large-scale integration (VLSI)
more » ... essor is dedicated to the most intensive of SVM operations: evaluating a kernel over large numbers of vectors in high dimensions. At the core of the Kerneltron is an internally analog, fine-grain computational array performing externally digital inner-products between an incoming vector and each of the stored support vectors. The three-transistor unit cell in the array combines single-bit dynamic storage, binary multiplication, and zero-latency analog accumulation. Precise digital outputs are obtained through oversampled quantization of the analog array outputs combined with bit-serial unary encoding of the digital inputs. The 256 input, 128 vector Kerneltron measures 3 mm 3 mm in 0.5 m CMOS, delivers 6.5 GMACS throughput at 5.9 mW power, and attains 8-bit output resolution. Index Terms-Analog array processors, analog-to-digital conversion (ADC), charge-injection device (CID), dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), matrix-vector multiplication (MVM), oversampling quantization, pattern recognition, support vector machines (SVMs), vector quantization (VQ).
doi:10.1007/3-540-45665-1_10 fatcat:onimogasmjdmzglhowytcxoslu