Nomograms Predicting Long-Term Overall Survival and Cancer-Specific Survival in Metastatic Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients: A SEER Population-Based Study
Background: This study aims to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and develop nomograms to predict their long-term overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS). Methods: Information on metastatic HCC from 2010 to 2015 was retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program of the National Cancer Institute. The metastatic HCC patients were divided into a long-term survival (LTS) group and a
... ort-term survival (STS) group with 1 year selected as the cut-off value. Then, we compared the demographic and clinicopathological features between the two groups. Next, all patients were randomly divided into a training group and validation group at a 7:3 ratio. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify potential predictors for OS and CSS in the training group, and nomograms of OS and CSS were established. These predictive models were further validated in the validation group. Results: A total of 2163 patients were included in the current study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Patients with characteristics including lower T stage and N stage; treatment with surgery, radiation or chemotherapy; no lung metastasis; and AFP negative status showed better survival. The concordance index (C-index) of the OS nomogram was 0.72 based on 9 variables. The C-index of the CSS nomogram was 0.71 based on 8 variables.Conclusions: These nomograms may help clinicians make better treatment recommendations for metastatic HCC patients.