Ecofeminism and Natural Resource Management: Justice Delayed, Justice Denied

Yang Liu, Muhammad Khalid Anser, Khalid Zaman
2021 Sustainability  
Women have a right to excel in all spheres of activity. However, their roles are mainly confined in the resource extraction industry due to masculinity bias. African women are considered exemplary cases where women have low access to finance and economic opportunities to progress in the natural resource industry. This study examines the role of women's autonomy in mineral resource extraction by controlling ecological footprints, financial development, environmental degradation, economic growth,
more » ... and changes in the general price level in the Democratic Republic of the Congo data from 1975–2019. The autoregressive distributed lag estimates show that in the short-run, women's autonomy decreases mineral resource rents; however, this result disappears in the long-run and the positive role of women's autonomy in increasing resource capital is confirmed. Ecological footprints are in jeopardy from saving mineral resources both in the short- and long-term. Financial development negatively impacts mineral resource rents, while women's access to finance supports the mineral resource agenda. The positive role of women in environmental protection has led to increased mineral resource rents in the short- and long-term. Women's social and economic autonomy increases mineral resource rents in the short-term, while it has evaporated in the long-term. The Granger causality has confirmed the unidirectional linkages running from women's green ecological footprints, access to finance, and women participating in environmental protection to mineral resource rents in a country. The variance decomposition analysis has shown that women's economic autonomy and access to finance will exert more significant variance shocks to mineral resource rents over the next ten years' period. The results conclude the positive role of women's freedom in the mineral resource sustainability agenda. Thus, there is a high need to authorize women through access to finance and economic decisions to restore natural resource capital nationwide.
doi:10.3390/su13137319 fatcat:qm3lh2ahkvaqtmhr233ejegicy