Citrus Canker in Sudan: Etiology and Epidemiology

Elshafia Ali Hamid
2021 Agricultural Research & Technology Open Access Journal  
Citrus bacterial canker disease (CBCD) caused by Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc), is one of the most destructive diseases to the citrus plantations worldwide, newly invaded, and threatened citriculture in Sudan. Occurrence and spread of CBCD in Sudan have been surveyed in two states, representing the main citrus producing states in Sudan. Field surveys were conducted during January 2015 in commercial citrus orchards and nurseries at the two locations. Symptomatology, host range study,
more » ... ological and biochemical characterization of the isolated pathogen were also carried out to obtain important clues on pathogen identification. In addition, the pathogenicity test was performed on detached leaves of several selected citrus varieties such as grapefruit, orange and lime to establish the identity of the presumptive Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (Xcc). The disease on lime orchards in northern and southern Sawagi (Kassala State) recorded a disease incidence of 66.6% and 18%, respectively. In nurseries, the disease incidence attained 51.7% and 53.6% in northern Sawagi and southern Sawagi, respectively, while in Khartoum State the disease was unexpectedly detected at a considerably high incidence of 45%, but at only one nursery, no disease detected in Khartoum State' s orchards during these surveys. Lime trees displayed typical symptoms of CBCD, but nearby canker-susceptible citrus species, such as grapefruit (C. paradisi) and sweet orange (C. sinensis) were unaffected. Typical symptoms of CBCD were noticed on leaves, twigs, fruits and branches. The pathogenicity tests of the recovered canker isolates induced typical lesions on local lime only, but produced atypical lesions on other citrus varieties. All the biochemical and physiological characteristics obtained from the re-isolations were also indicative of the presence of Xcc. As important perspectives, it appeared that these citrus canker isolates were distinctive and specific on lime. They were very similar to the pathotype ( ) * * A Xcc A − and they attained an epidemic level in Kassala State.
doi:10.19080/artoaj.2021.25.556313 fatcat:5pf3rgkh75bjnchjwsm627h5ra