The treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) as a possible source of micro- and nano-plastics and bioplastics in agroecosystems: a review

Francesca Bandini, Eren Taskin, Gabriele Bellotti, Filippo Vaccari, Chiara Misci, Maria Chiara Guerrieri, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Edoardo Puglisi
2022 Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture  
AbstractPlastics fragmentation into smaller debris, namely, micro- and nano-plastics (MPs and NPs), is a matter of global concern because of their wide distribution in terrestrial and marine environments. The latest research has focused mainly on aquatic ecosystems, and fragmentation of bioplastics into micro- and nano-particles (MBPs and NBPs) is not considered. The distribution, concentration, fate and major source of MPs, NPS, MBPs and NBPs in agroecosystems still need to be understood. The
more » ... se of composts and sewage sludge from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) treatment plants as soil amendments is likely to represent a major input of these debris. The present review provides insights into the current evidence of pollution from micro- and nano-particles of both fossil- and bio-origin in the OFMSW treatment, and aims at evaluating if the recycling of organic waste and its application as a soil fertilizer outweigh the risk of pollution in terrestrial environments. Huge unpredictability exists due to the limited numbers of data on their quantification in each source of possible solution. Indeed, the major hurdles arise from the difficult to quantify the micro-, especially the nano-, particles and subsequently assess the concentrations in the environments, as well as bioaccumulation risks, and toxic effects on organisms. Graphical Abstract
doi:10.1186/s40538-021-00269-w fatcat:xdthldb6ybd7fj2g7zfykf7usa