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Many osteichthyan fishes obtain oxygen from both air, using a lung, and water, using gills. Although it is commonly thought that fishes air-breathe to survive hypoxic aquatic habitats, other reasons may be more important in many species. This study was undertaken to determine the significance of air-breathing in two fish species while exercising in oxygen-rich water. Oxygen consumption from air and water was measured during mild activity in bowfin (Amia calva) and spotted gar (Lepisosteuspmid:9487099 fatcat:kvufyrdhenfa3kbqt35mllhfmy