Multidrug Resistance and High Prevalence of class 1 Integrons in Escherichia coli Isolated from Irrigation Water and Vegetables in Parts of Nsukka and Enugu, Nigeria [article]

Vincent Nnamdigadi Chigor, Chinyere B. Chigor, Ini-Abasi I. Ibangha, Nkechinyere O. Nweze, Chizoba A. Ozochi, Valentino C Onuora, Yinka Titilawo, Tatyana N. Chernikova, Peter N. Golyshin
2020 bioRxiv   pre-print
In spite of treated wastewater presenting itself as an attractive alternative to scarce quality water in the developing countries, the associated contamination of fresh produce by irrigation waters leading to outbreak of foodborne illnesses is on the rise. Horizontal transfer of integrons play important role in the spread and maintenance of antimicrobial resistance among strains of Escherichia coli . This study assessed the effluents from the University of Nigeria, Nsukka Wastewater Treatment
more » ... ant (UNN-WWTP) as well as vegetables irrigated with the effluent, and vegetables sold in selected markets from Nsukka and Enugu cities for the presence of E. coli and determined the prevalence integrons in multidrug-resistant isolates. Isolation of E. coli was done using eosin methylene blue agar and isolates subjected to Gram staining for identification of presumptive colonies. Confirmation of E. coli was achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, targeting beta-glucuronidase ( uid A). Resistance to antibiotics was determined using the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion assay and the Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute criteria. Integrons were detected by multiplex PCR using primers specific for class 1 and 2 integrons. A total of 178 E. coli isolates were obtained from WWTP effluent (41), and vegetables from greenhouse (46) , farms (55) and market (36). Multi-drug resistance was detected in all the isolates, ranging from five-drug resistance in a single isolate to 16-drug resistance patterns in two different isolates. Of the total isolates, class 1 integrons were abundantly detected in 175 (98.3%) and class 2 in 5 (2.8%). All the class 2 integrons were found in isolates that were positive for class 1. The high detection of E. coli in the studied effluent and vegetables pose potential public health hazards heightened by observed multidrug resistance in all the isolates and the high prevalence of class 1 integron. It is concluded that the vegetable samples are significant reservoirs for potentially pathogenic E. coli. Therefore, vegetable irrigation farming with unsafe water should be discontinued, while appropriate improvement strategies to ensure compliance should be facilitated without further delay.
doi:10.1101/2020.01.06.895748 fatcat:qytrlmwxl5hxneaouyzhktdr7u