Smart manufacturing based on cyber-physical systems and beyond
Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing
2017) Smart manufacturing based on cyber-physical systems and beyond. Journal of Intelligent Manufacturing. pp. 1-13. ISSN 0956-5515 , http://dx. Abstract: Cyber-physical systems (CPS) have gained an increasing attention recently for their immense potential towards the next generation smart systems that integrate cyber technology into the physical processes. However, CPS did not initiate either smart factories or smart manufacturing, and vice versa. Historically, the smart factory was initially
... studied with the introduction of the Internet of Things (IoT) in manufacturing, and later became a key part of Industry 4.0. Also emerging are other related models such as cloud manufacturing, social manufacturing and proactive manufacturing with the introduction of cloud computing (broadly, the Internet of Services, IoS), social networking (broadly, the Internet of People, IoP) and big data (broadly, the Internet of Content and Knowledge, IoCK), respectively. At present, there is a lack of a systemic and comprehensive study on the linkages and relations between these terms. Therefore, this study first presents a comprehensive survey and analysis of the CPS treated as a combination of the IoT and the IoS. Then, the paper addresses CPS-based smart manufacturing as an eight tuple of CPS, IoT, IoS and IoCK as elements. Further, the paper extends the eight-tuple CPS-based manufacturing to social-CPS (SCPS) based manufacturing, termed wisdom manufacturing, which forms a nine tuple with the addition of one more element, the IoP, and which is based on the SCPS instead of CPS. Both architectures and characteristics for smart and wisdom manufacturing are addressed. As such, these terms' linkages are established and relations are clarified with a special discussion. This study thus contributes as a theoretical basis and as a comprehensive framework for emerging manufacturing integration. Wang et al. (2010) proposed a service-oriented CPS architecture that consists of sensor and actuator node modules, network modules, and resource and service modules. Bogdan and Marculescu (2011) proposed a more sophisticated architecture that consists of 6 layers. Other CPS architectures were also proposed in similar ways (Derler et al. 2012; Dillon et al. 2011). From the view of abstract model, CPS consist of the physical world, communication networks, and the cyber space, as shown in Fig. 2. The physical world refers to the physical objects, processes or environment to be monitored or controlled. The cyber space refers to the next generation information infrastructure, including services, applications, and decision-making units. The communication networks refer to intermediate components which are responsible for bridging the cyber space with the physical world. In the view of technical composition, CPS includes but not limited to the IoT, and IoS. The existing Internet provides CPS with a lot of mature network technologies, such as IP/TCP, XML, access control, network link, publish/subscribe model, etc. However, the real realization of CPS still requires a lot of new technologies, such as mobile node localization, semantic analysis of heterogeneous data, sensor network coverage, and the issue of mass data transmission.