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First and 2nd graders (N = 28?) receiving Title I services received 1 of 3 kinds of classroom reading programs: direct instruction in letter-sound correspondences practiced in decodable text (direct code); less direct instruction in systematic sound-spelling patterns embedded in connected text (embedded code); and implicit instruction in the alphabetic code while reading connected text (implicit code). Children receiving direct code instruction improved in word reading at a faster rate and haddoi:10.1037//0022-06184.108.40.206 fatcat:zusk6ky4o5fkpgchtlk22eomoq