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Timing of endogenous activin-like signals and regional specification of the Xenopus embryo
Signaling by activin-like ligands is important for induction and patterning of mesoderm and endoderm. We have used an antibody that specifically recognizes the phosphorylated and activated form of Smad2, an intracellular transducer of activin-like ligands, to examine how this signaling pathway patterns the early mesendoderm. In contrast to the simple expectation that activin-like signaling should be highest on the dorsal side of the gastrula stage embryo, we have found that while Smad2pmid:11532917 fatcat:ewnhjvzlqfedvglpdvgwv5cgni