Studies in Logic
Known as the Early Journal Content, this set of works include research articles, news, letters, and other writings published in more than 200 of the oldest leading academic journals. The works date from the mid--seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries. We encourage people to read and share the Early Journal Content openly and to tell others that this resource exists. People may post this content online or redistribute in any way for non--commercial purposes. Read more about Early Journal
... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org. 514 SCIENCE. STUDIES IN LOGIC. Studies in logic. By members of the Johns Hopkins university. Boston, Little, Brown, _ Co., 1883. 7 + 203 p., 2 pl. 16?. MR. C. S. PEIRCE and four of his students, present or recent members of his logic classes at Baltimore, offer us in this work six distinct essays on topics of recent logical theory, besides three shorter contributions classed as notes. The volume is throughout studiously unpretentious and very solid work, that might have made much greater claims with perfect safety. The style is extremely compact, and the purchaser of the book will pay for no padding. Four of the longer studies appeal only to very special students. The two others, Mr. Marquand's essay on the ' Logic of the Epicureans ' and Mr. Peirce's very important study of the logic of induction, entitled ' A theory of probable inference,' will interest the general student either of philosophy or of scientific method. Mr. Marquand's essay on the Epicurean logic opens the book, and gives us an account of the Epicurean theory of induction as it is stated in the work of Philodemus, that has been preserved in fragments in alHerculaneum papyrus. One could wish that this essay had been fuller upon some points; but as a whole we must accept it with thankfulness, as containing useful and not otherwise so easily accessible information. Mr. Marquand then discusses a ' Machine for producing syllogistic variations,' and adds a ' Note on an eight-term logical machine.' Then follow two 'Algebras of logic,' by Miss Christine Ladd (now Mrs. Fabian Franklin) and Mr. 0. H. Mitchell respectively. These are new structures on Boole's foundation. Miss Ladd uses two copulas, expressed by the symbols v and v. With these she is able to write algebraically all the old forms of statement, and to perform the customary operations of symbolic logic with great brevity and facility. The copula v, a wedge, is used to signify exclusion. A v B means that A is wholly excluded from B; i.e., that no A is B. This copula is not, to imply the existence of the terms of the statement. The copula v, an incomplete wedge, is the symbol of imperfect exclusion. A v B means that some A is B. And this copula is taken to imply the existence of the terms of the statement. The symbol oo is used for the universe of discourse. The symbol 0 finds no use in this algebra. x v oo expresses the non-existence of the class x; and this is written more briefly x V. The [VOL. I., NO. 18.