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Membrane-based separation has gained increased popularity over the past few decades, particularly reverse osmosis (RO). A major impediment to the improved performance of membrane separation processes, in general, is membrane fouling. Fouling has detrimental effects on the membrane's performance and integrity, as the deposition and accumulation of foulants on its surface and/or within its pores leads to a decline in the permeate flux, deterioration of selectivity, and permeability, as well as adoi:10.3390/w13091327 fatcat:aeu7rbovhzakhk2ryy7fv7b6xq