Siberian Students' Material Situation in the early 20th century (based on Student Questionnaires)

2019 Bylye Gody  
The article is devoted to the study of student questionnaires conducted in the universities of Tomsk in [1901][1902][1903][1904][1905][1906][1907][1908][1909][1910][1911][1912][1913]. The authors analyze the changes of material and social status of Siberian students in the early 20 th century. The study revealed that the students' living standard was largely determined by their parents' welfare status. At the same time, the fact of belonging to a certain social class did not play the main role
more » ... play the main role as it failed to determine the family's social status or well-being. Therefore, the offsprings of burghers at the Tomsk Technological Institute were often better off than the children of nobles and clergy at the Tomsk University. The authors studied the materials of student questionnaires and identified the main sources of the student's budget, which included money received from the family, financial assistance from the state and/or philanthropists as well as personal earnings. Tuition fees are believed to have been the biggest item of the student's expenses along with rent and money spent on food. To have a relatively decent way of living, an average student was supposed to spend at least 300-350 rubles, but many students were below that income level. Therefore, all the students can be divided into low-income, middle-class and upper-class groups, the first and second group being much larger in number. Analysis of student profiles showed a slight increase in students' material security and improving their living conditions. This was especially true for students of technical universities, because their knowledge and skills were in demand for the industrial development of the Siberian region. However, a relatively slow increase in living standards and short duration of the stabilization period prevented a significant share of poor students from improving their material situation.
doi:10.13187/bg.2019.1.366 fatcat:njs63tm5vnfdtk2k4ln3o2mfke