Acute Hyperinsulinemia Restrains Endotoxin-induced Systemic Inflammatory Response

Vibeke Brix-Christensen, Søren Kæseler Andersen, René Andersen, Annette Mengel, Thomas Dyhr, Niels Trolle Andersen, Anders Larsson, Ole Schmitz, Hans Ørskov, Else Tønnesen
2004 Anesthesiology  
Intensive insulin therapy in critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. The current study elucidates whether acute hyperinsulinemia per se could attenuate the systemic cytokine response and improve neutrophil function during endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)-induced systemic inflammation in a porcine model. Methods: Pigs were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, randomized into four groups, and followed for 570 min: group 1 (anesthesia solely, n ‫؍‬ 10), group 2 (hyperinsulinemic
more » ... glycemic clamp [HEC], n ‫؍‬ 9), group 3 (lipopolysaccharide, n ‫؍‬ 10), group 4 (lipopolysaccharide-HEC, n ‫؍‬ 9). Groups 3 and 4 were given a 180-min infusion of lipopolysaccharide (total, 10 g/kg). Groups 2 and 4 were clamped (p-glucose: 5 mM/l, insulin 0.6 mU · kg ؊1 · min ؊1 ) throughout the study period. Changes in pulmonary and hemodynamic function, circulating cytokines, free fatty acids, glucagon, and neutrophil chemotaxis were monitored. Results: Tumor necrosis factor ␣ and interleukin 6 were significantly reduced in the lipopolysaccharide-HEC group compared with the lipopolysaccharide group (both P ‫؍‬ 0.04). In the lipopolysaccharide-HEC group, the glucagon response was diminished compared with the lipopolysaccharide group (P < 0.05). Serum free fatty acid concentrations were decreased in animals exposed to HEC. Animals receiving lipopolysaccharide showed an increase in pulmonary pressure (P < 0.001), but otherwise, there were no major changes in pulmonary or hemodynamic function. Neutrophil function was impaired after lipopolysaccharide administration. Conclusion: Hyperinsulinemia concomitant with normoglycemia reduces plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor ␣ and the catabolic hormone glucagon in lipopolysaccharideinduced systemic inflammation in pigs. The finding strongly supports the role of insulin as an antiinflammatory hormone. Whether the effect to some extent operates via a reduced free fatty acid concentration is unsettled.
doi:10.1097/00000542-200404000-00016 pmid:15087621 fatcat:ngcj5jsn3namhnu33pjdapngda