PASSIVE AND ACTIVE FLOW CONTROL BY SWIMMING FISHES AND MAMMALS

F.E. Fish, G.V. Lauder
2006 Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics  
What mechanisms of flow control do animals use to enhance hydrodynamic performance? Animals are capable of manipulating flow around the body and appendages both passively and actively. Passive mechanisms rely on structural and morphological components of the body (i.e., humpback whale tubercles, riblets). Active flow control mechanisms use appendage or body musculature to directly generate wake flow structures or stiffen fins against external hydrodynamic loads. Fish can actively control fin
more » ... vely control fin curvature, displacement, and area. The vortex wake shed by the tail differs between eel-like fishes and fishes with a discrete narrowing of the body in front of the tail, and three-dimensional effects may play a major role in determining wake structure in most fishes. 193 Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. 194 Fish · Lauder Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. www.annualreviews.org • Fish and Mammal Locomotion 195 Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. 196 Fish · Lauder Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. 198 Fish · Lauder Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. www.annualreviews.org • Fish and Mammal Locomotion 199 Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. 200 Fish · Lauder Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only. 206 Fish · Lauder Annu. Rev. Fluid. Mech. 2006.38:193-224. Downloaded from arjournals.annualreviews.org by WEST CHESTER UNIVERSITY on 12/20/05. For personal use only.
doi:10.1146/annurev.fluid.38.050304.092201 fatcat:joe7fxhabvd43esrfp7f4yhdbq