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Physics Letters B
We study non-perturbatively and from first principles the thermodynamics of vortices in 3d U(1) gauge+Higgs theory, or the Ginzburg-Landau model, which has frequently been used as a model for cosmological topological defect formation. We discretize the system and introduce a gauge-invariant definition of a vortex passing through a loop on the lattice. We then study with Monte Carlo simulations the total vortex density, extract the physically meaningful part thereof, and demonstrate that it hasdoi:10.1016/s0370-2693(98)00440-7 fatcat:3jl4nrxzzje77mikzuopkd6r6u