Thermodynamics of gauge-invariant U(1) vortices from lattice Monte Carlo simulations

K. Kajantie, M. Karjalainen, M. Laine, J. Peisa, A. Rajantie
1998 Physics Letters B  
We study non-perturbatively and from first principles the thermodynamics of vortices in 3d U(1) gauge+Higgs theory, or the Ginzburg-Landau model, which has frequently been used as a model for cosmological topological defect formation. We discretize the system and introduce a gauge-invariant definition of a vortex passing through a loop on the lattice. We then study with Monte Carlo simulations the total vortex density, extract the physically meaningful part thereof, and demonstrate that it has
more » ... strate that it has a well-defined continuum limit. The total vortex density behaves as a pseudo order parameter, having a discontinuity in the regime of first order transitions and behaving continuously in the regime of second order transitions. Finally, we discuss further gauge-invariant observables to be measured.
doi:10.1016/s0370-2693(98)00440-7 fatcat:3jl4nrxzzje77mikzuopkd6r6u