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Production efficiency of transgenic rats was compared directly between the routine pronuclear microinjection of exogenous DNA solution (PNMI-Tg method) and the ooplasmic injection of sperm cells exposed to exogenous DNA solution (ICSI-Tg method) using six DNA constructs. The overall production efficiency per treated oocyte in the ICSI-Tg method (mean 1.1%, range 0.2 to 3.1%) was similar to that in the PNMI-Tg method (mean 1.1%, range 0 to 2.4%). An advantage of the ICSI-Tg method in thedoi:10.1538/expanim.57.145 pmid:18421178 fatcat:obd3zg3yqbev7hwj43nu7klsuy