A systematic approach to in situ bioremediation in groundwater

Bart Faris, Dimitri Vlassopoulos
2003 Remediation Journal  
In situ bioremediation (ISB) melds an understanding of microbiology, chemistry, hydrogeology, and engineering into a strategy for planned and controlled microbial degradation of specific contaminants. ISB creates subsurface environmental conditions, typically through reduction oxidation manipulation, which induce the degradation of contaminants via microbial catalyzed biochemical reactions. In turn, the microbes produce enzymes that are utilized to derive energy and that are instrumental in the
more » ... degradation of target chemicals. To accomplish this chain of events, the type of microorganisms, contaminant, and the geological conditions at the site must be considered. Since in situ conditions are manipulated by engineered means, the most important consideration is the ability to transmit and mix liquids in the subsurface. The Interstate Technology Regulatory Council (ITRC)-ISB Team has recently completed a guidance document that describes a systematic approach to ISB in groundwater. ITRC is a state-led coalition of more than 40 states working together with industry and stakeholders to achieve regulatory acceptance of environmental technologies. A Systematic Approach to In Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater obtained, engineered approaches can be designed, pilot tested, and eventually deployed. The systematic approach, which is summarized in this article, describes the information needed for any ISB evaluation.This approach begins with an evaluation of natural attenuation (NA). NA includes all processes acting to degrade or remove contaminants from the subsurface without human intervention. If these processes can achieve remediation goals within an adequate time frame, then no further engineered actions are taken, other than implementing a long-term monitoring plan (MNA). If NA cannot achieve remedial goals within this time frame, the next step is to evaluate whether biodegrada-A Systematic Approach to In Situ Bioremediation in Groundwater
doi:10.1002/rem.10063 fatcat:tlv7kqijcbbixkatle323r7cfa