Extraction of heavy metals characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits using multiple classification analysis

Kengo Nakamura, Tatsu Kuwatani, Yoshishige Kawabe, Takeshi Komai
2016 Chemosphere  
Handling editor: Xinde Cao Keywords: Tohoku-oki Tsunami deposit Principal component analysis Cluster analysis Heavy metal a b s t r a c t Tsunami deposits accumulated on the Tohoku coastal area in Japan due to the impact of the Tohokuoki earthquake. In the study reported in this paper, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in tsunami deposits that had been diluted with water or digested using 1 M HCl. The results
more » ... M HCl. The results suggest that the environmental risk is relatively low, evidenced by the following geometric mean concentrations: Pb, 16 mg kg −1 and 0.003 ml L −1 ; As, 1.8 mg kg −1 and 0.004 ml L −1 ; and Cd, 0.17 mg kg −1 and 0.0001 ml L −1 . CA was performed after outliers were excluded using PCA. The analysis grouped the concentrations of heavy metals for leaching in water and acid. For the acid case, the first cluster contained Ni, Fe, Cd, Cu, Al, Cr, Zn, and Mn; while the second contained Pb, Sb, As, and Mo. For water, the first cluster contained Ni, Fe, Al, and Cr; and the second cluster contained Mo, Sb, As, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn. Statistical analysis revealed that the typical toxic elements, As, Pb, and Cd have steady correlations for acid leaching but are relatively sparse for water leaching. Pb and As from the tsunami deposits seemed to reveal a kind of redox elution mechanism using 1 M HCl.
doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.09.078 pmid:26469936 fatcat:qmv5gj3oynf7hcjlqxds5457au