Yield, ecological plasticity and stability of spring soft and durum wheat varieties in the southern forest steppe of Tyumen region
Agricultural science Euro-North-East
The aim of the research is the assessment of 10 varieties of spring soft wheat approved for use, and 5 promising varieties of spring durum wheat of Russian selection according to yield and adaptability parameters for 2015-2018 on the basis of the results of the test carried out in the southern forest steppe zone of the Tyumen region. Productive and adaptive potential of the varieties was determined by the method of L.A. Zhivotkov co-authored, the average yield in contrast conditions –by the
... ditions –by the equations of A.A. Rossielle, J. Hemblin, the yield variability – by the method of B.A. Dospekhov, the environmental condition index and ecological plasticity of varieties – by S.A. Eberhart, W.A. Russell, the general adaptive ability of the varieties – by the method of A.V. Kilchevsky, L.V. Hotyleva. The strongest variability of indexes of environmental conditions during the years of testing of the varieties was found in middle-early varieties of spring soft wheat, from -1.08 (2017) to 1.26 (2018). The varieties of spring soft wheat Tyumenskaya Yubileynaya (middle-early, 3.06 t/ha) and Aviada (middle-season, 2.86 t/ha), and of spring durum wheat – Omsky izumrud (3.52 t/ha) were recognized the best in terms of average yield. In the favorable conditions of 2018, on the basis of determination of the percentage of yield of varieties relative to the average among the varieties, the largest productive potential of spring soft wheat varieties was revealed in Tyumenskaya Yubileynaya (middle-early, 111.5 %), Aviada (middle-season, 108.9 %) and spring durum wheat – Omskaya stepnaya (105.7 %). In the unfavorable conditions of 2017, high adaptability was observed in spring soft wheat varieties Ekaterina (middle-early, 118.7%), Ikar (middle-season, 105.0 %) and spring durum wheat – Omskaya stepnaya (105.8 %). Regardless of the specie, all studied varieties had significant yield variability. The most of the varieties were characterized as plastic (bi is equal to or close to 1). Strong responsiveness to change of conditions is determined in spring soft wheat varieties Novosibirskaya 15 (middle-early, bi = 1.11) and Aviada (middle-season, bi = 1.21), and in spring durum wheat Omsky korund (bi = 1.14). The varieties of spring soft wheat Ekaterina (middle-early, Si2 = 1.20), Tyumenskaya 29 (middle-season, Si2 = 0.03) and spring durum wheat Zhemchuzhina Sibiri (Si2 = 0.84) were the best in terms of stability. The varieties of spring soft wheat Tyumenskaya Yubileynaya (midlle-early, GAA = 0.32), Aviada (middle-season, GAA = 0.07) and the spring durum wheat Omsky izumrud (GAA = 0.26) were the best according to the general adaptive ability. The varieties of spring soft wheat Ekaterina (midlle-early) and Aviada (middle-season) and spring durum wheat Omskaya stepnaya were recognized as the best on the basis of the complex assessment of yield and adaptability parameters.