Set Norm and Equivariant Skip Connections: Putting the Deep in Deep Sets [article]

Lily H. Zhang, Veronica Tozzo, John M. Higgins, Rajesh Ranganath
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Permutation invariant neural networks are a promising tool for making predictions from sets. However, we show that existing permutation invariant architectures, Deep Sets and Set Transformer, can suffer from vanishing or exploding gradients when they are deep. Additionally, layer norm, the normalization of choice in Set Transformer, can hurt performance by removing information useful for prediction. To address these issues, we introduce the clean path principle for equivariant residual
more » ... ns and develop set norm, a normalization tailored for sets. With these, we build Deep Sets++ and Set Transformer++, models that reach high depths with comparable or better performance than their original counterparts on a diverse suite of tasks. We additionally introduce Flow-RBC, a new single-cell dataset and real-world application of permutation invariant prediction. We open-source our data and code here: https://github.com/rajesh-lab/deep_permutation_invariant.
arXiv:2206.11925v2 fatcat:t73s6zhfdvcpjj35mcj6y22gxa