XOR_p A maximally intertwined p-classes problem used as a benchmark with built-in truth for neural networks gradient descent optimization [article]

Danielle Thierry-Mieg, Jean Thierry-Mieg
2018 arXiv   pre-print
A natural p-classes generalization of the eXclusive OR problem, the subtraction modulo p, where p is prime, is presented and solved using a single fully connected hidden layer with p-neurons. Although the problem is very simple, the landscape is intricate and challenging and represents an interesting benchmark for gradient descent optimization algorithms. Testing 9 optimizers and 9 activation functions up to p = 191, the method converging most often and the fastest to a perfect classification
more » ... the Adam optimizer combined with the ELU activation function.
arXiv:1812.07538v1 fatcat:gryoulvqqrc5nojjrghja5pfoe