Notes and News [stub]

1891 Science  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact |ANUARY 9, I89I.] |ANUARY 9, I89I.] SCIENCE. SCIENCE. 2 X 2 X longer reqlliring the shelter of the vines. The barking of the cork may be effected when tlle elant has acquired sufficient strength to resist tlle operation, and the ti-me chosen for this loperation is in the summer. The cork of the first barking is called corcho bornio, bornizo, or virgin, and is not fit for making corks. The cork taken after the first barking is called pelas, or secondary cork. The method emplozyed ill Spain for this operation consists in the total barking of the trunk, and not partial barking, or bark-ing one part of the 57ear. and the remainder thr?e, four, or five years later. In propoXlon as the cork is taken from the tree, it is removed, and piled f up in heafps. Sometimes the cork 'is cook@d in the woods, but at other times this oEzeration is efEected in the caldrolls that exist in the cork-factory. The slabs remain in hoiling rater during the space of one hour, this operatioll causing an increase of thickness (generally of one-fourth to-one fifth), elasticitasr of the cork, and dissolution of tannin an(l other substances. The cal-drons in whicbh the cork is boiled aie of' copper, and are either cylindrical or rectangular. The boiling of the colk can also he eSected -by steam, for which purpose'it is introducetl into a wooden box' lined on the inside with copper or sinc, which is filZed with water and steam injected therein.-The steaming of cork sometimes hardens it and makes it brittle. f The loss of weight produced by boiling the cork s aries-bett.' een twelve and forty per cent. In making corks it is necessary to take away the hard crust, or raspa, for which purpose; a tool is used with a short han-dle and curved blade, called doladera, ruspador, 'or raspeta. A workman can scrape from two'to three .square metres of cork dailystQand the loss in weight of tlle-'cork by scraping is from twenty to thirtss per cent. Scraping-machines are al£o useds two systems being employeds--the 13esson and Tousseau. The former, plopelled by steam, consists principally of horizontal spindles supplied with comb-like teeth, and turning with great velocitsrf at the rate of nine hundred revolutions a minute. The Tousseau' scraper attacks the= cork by means of a vertical iron shaft carrying several kn;ves, whose e(lges axe also vertical, and by the rotary movement 'ofitbe shaft, giving fourteen hundred turns 'a minu'te,' 0 work"lilge a brush. This machine is simpler than the Besson, and the slabs' suffer less damage when worked by inexperiellced work-men. [3efore cuttinz the slahs into'-strips, they are cooked for about half an-hour, so as to facilitate the cutting, and piled up soon after in a damp place, so as to preserve the softness until ready to opelate upon. The slabs are divided inlo three strips