HE HARMFUL OF THE HYDROELECTRIC DAMS IN MEKONG RIVER UPSTREAM ON THE ECOSYSTEMS AND LIVELIHOODS IN THE MEKONG DELTA, VIETNAMS
Water Conservation and Management
The hydro-electric of the upstream Mekong (China) has been and will greatly impact on the down-stream areas, in which the Mekong Delta (Viet Nam) is suffering a lot of losses Drought due to water trapped by dams upstream together with Climate Change, Sea Level Rise are present, its impact on Vietnam Mekong Delta and given scenarios for the specialist units to propose. 12 dams in the Chinese division, they accumulate too large water; even causing floods for the people, for many years, causing
... ught in the downstream, especially the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: drought, lack of water for crops, livestock, for human livelihoods. Alluvium of the river stream is also retained (formerly 160,000,000.00 tons / year, this year, only 80,000,000.00 tons / year, so not only the loss of crop but also erosion of the shoreline and coastline. and saline intrusion, under the impact of climate change is rapidly increasing and very high, in addition, the Sulfate Acidification process also becomes fierce. Characteristics of the ecological system of acid sulfate soil in the Mekong Delta, it contains more than 1.7 million Ha with S content about 1.0-.8%. in normal condition, they are not toxic, but when dry, dehydrated, and air penetrates, they will sulfate acidification very strong, produces highly toxic (Al3+> 3000ppm), kills aquatic organisms and rice, and other agricultural crops. Drought due to water resources by upstream countries, mainly by China, will be increasingly fierce: 6 processes simultaneously occurring in this Ecosystem: 1- Drought, 2: sulfate acidification, 3. Saltwaterization, 4. Lack of alluvium and nutrition, 5- riverbank erosion, sedimentation of estuaries and seaports; and 6 – Coastal landslide (which in the past, accreted to the sea 100m /year, now, in contrast, erosion and sea intrusion 25m/year. Productivity of rice and fisheries has been and will continue to decrease.