Spillover Effects of Mega-Events: The Influences of Residence, Transportation Mode, and Staying Period on Attraction Networks during Olympic Games
When hosting mega-events such as the Olympic games, increased visitation to nearby local attractions is expected to boost the local economy and sustain the host city's brand. These spillover effects, as well as the spatial interaction among touristic attractions, are critical from the long-term and sustainable-planning perspectives. This study investigates tourists' patterns of visitation to multiple destinations during the 2018 Winter Olympics and finds that attraction networks originated from
... rks originated from three major cores, forming a strong northern sandy beach–south downtown connection. The domestic visitors' network had significantly more diverse cores, implying that city branding may have been limited to domestic boundaries. Transportation modes had a significant impact, as public transportation and walking networks had more cores and were significantly denser. The staying period had no significant impact on the number of cores or on connection strengths—even the long-term visitors' network had lower core values; however, that network was significantly denser, suggesting that a longer stay may not imply more destination visits. These findings suggest that hosting the Olympics may have enhanced the city's international profile in only a limited fashion. Our findings provide the following practical implications. When planning Olympic spots, the host city's government can consider strategically scattering infrastructure and facilities, rather than planning for a single spot. Well-organized and designed walking routes or public transportation systems can contribute to enhanced spillover effects versus car rental system developments.